arterial blood gas analysis wikipedia

However, in special circumstances, and emergency situations, paramedics and physicians extract the blood. [citation needed], Blood gas tests can be used in the diagnosis of a number of acidosis conditions such as lactic, metabolic, and respiratory acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, and also of respiratory alkalosis. It can control the exact size and spacing of the droplets. [2], In dwelling arterial, central venous and peripheral venous lines can also be used to draw blood. Limitations of these definitions include lack of precise definition of acuity, nonspecific imaging criteria, lack of precise definition of hypoxemia with regards to PEEP (affects arterial oxygen partial pressure), arbitrary Pa O It is used to check the efficiency of the lungs to remove carbon dioxide from the blood as well as to take oxygen into the blood. Researchers used plastic components, to reduce manufacturing costs. Blood tests results should always be interpreted using the ranges provided by the laboratory that performed the test. The end result is a number given in milliPascal seconds (m.Pas.s) – known as the PV, or plasma viscosity. A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick. In 2008, scientists announced that the more cost effective saliva testing could eventually replace some blood tests, as saliva contains 20% of the proteins found in blood. In combination with other clinical information, normal paired arterial and venous cord blood gas results can usually provide a robust defence against a suggestion that an infant had an intrapartum hypoxic‐ischaemic event. It is called Self-powered Integrated Microfluidic Blood Analysis System (SIMBAS). Examples of common blood test abbreviations are shown below. Patients are often required to be checked for Arterial Blood Gas Analysis to find what exactly is … Upon completion of a blood test analysis, patients may receive a report with blood test abbreviations. An arterial blood gas (ABG) test measures oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in your blood. 23rd ed. Samples from the earlobe are seen to be a more appropriate site for the prediction of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen. The brachial artery (or less often, the femoral artery) is also used, especially during emergency situation… 1902 May 28; 28 (3):232–240. Thyroid regulates the function of metabolism. Note that according to these criteria, arterial blood gas analysis and chest X-ray were required for formal diagnosis. If the immune system is fighting an infection or illness, CRP will be higher. Blood flows throughout the body, acting as a medium that provides oxygen and nutrients to tissues and carries waste products back to the excretory systems for disposal. Consequently, the state of the bloodstream affects or is affected by, many medical conditions. [6], Some tests, such as those that measure glucose or a lipid profile, require fasting (or no food consumption) eight to twelve hours prior to the drawing of the blood sample. Professional Gas Analyzers and Gas Analysis Systems Manufacturer in China - Wuhan Tianyu Intelligent Control Technology Co., Ltd. has a registered capital of 10 million. It is performed so that an accurate measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels can be obtained, which then allows the patients oxygen to be delivered appropriately. The source of the blood is reflected in the name of each test; arterial blood gases come from arteries, venous blood gases come from veins and capillary blood gases come from capillaries. A venipuncture is useful as it is a minimally invasive way to obtain cells and extracellular fluid (plasma) from the body for analysis. Blood gas analysis of arterial blood is primarily used to monitor carbon dioxide and oxygen levels related to pulmonary function, but is also used to measure blood … Analysis of paired arterial and venous specimens can give insights into the aetiology of acidosis in the newborn. Arterial blood gas analysis and other tests are required to separate the main causes. The symptoms of 'AGE' depend on the area of blood flow, and may be those of stroke for a cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) or heart attack if the heart is affected. The patient hits his PCA button several times in the first hour. It also measures your body’s acid-base (pH) level, which is usually in balance when you’re healthy. These data indicate the status of gas exchange between lungs and blood. [PMC free article] Barcroft J. This test is performed to measure the function of kidney. Typical clinical blood panels include a basic metabolic panel or a complete blood count. The rate of cellular metabolic activity... healthy human-arterial blood pH varies between 7.35 and 7.45). In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is a blood test which measures the acidity (pH) and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. The Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Analyzer interprets ABG findings and values. Blood pH values compatible with life in mammals are limited to a... it usually refers to acidity of the blood plasma. The body normally extracts 25% of available oxygen and leaves 75% in reserve in times of stress or illness.4 Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 119, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, "Use of umbilical cord blood gas analysis in the assessment of the newborn", "Blood gas testing and related measurements: National recommendations on behalf of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blood_gas_test&oldid=982758962, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 October 2020, at 04:50. Arterial blood gas (ABG) sampling by direct vascular puncture is a procedure often practiced in the hospital setting. For these reasons, blood tests are the most commonly performed medical tests. [14][15] Saliva testing may not be appropriate or available for all markers. Each hemoglobin molecule contains four atoms of iron and therefore can combine with four molecules of oxygen. The selection of which radial artery to draw from is based on the outcome of an Allen's test. The blood gas tension levels of partial pressures can be used as indicators of ventilation, respirationand oxygenation. Arterial blood for blood gas analysis is usually drawn by a respiratory therapist and sometimes a phlebotomist, nurse or doctor. [2], Abnormal results may be due to a wide range of diseases, including poisoning and trauma as well as lung, kidney, or metabolic diseases. Determination of the constant of the differential blood gas apparatus, with a note on the specific oxygen capacity of blood. Radial artery puncture can also be used for coronary catheterization through percutaneous coronary … To clarify, lactate electrodes are common on blood gas analyzers because arterial samples are ideal samples from which to measure lactate -- and because lactate is directly interlinked with hypoxemia and acidosis (lactic acidosis) which are also measured with arterial blood gases. Indicates the time it takes for red blood cells to move down a tube. The test method is called the arterial blood gas (ABG) test. An arterial blood gas (ABG) is a blood test carried out by taking blood from an artery, rather than a vein. J Physiol. Analysis of 15 different blood test readings to provide information about overall health. [citation needed], In March 2011, a team of researchers from UC Berkeley, DCU and University of Valparaíso have developed lab-on-a-chip that can diagnose diseases within 10 minutes without the use of external tubing and extra components. Sampling and analysis. An arterial blood gas test is more often used. Arterial blood gas (ABG) interpretation is something that can be difficult to grasp initially (we’ve been there). It's not a neonatal-only thing, it's fairly common in many critical care areas. It uses tiny trenches to separate blood cells from plasma (99 percent of blood cells were captured during experiments). arterial blood gas analysis a test of blood taken from an artery that measures the amounts of certain dissolved gases. ... Cost-efficient blood gas, electrolyte and lactate analysis. Arterial Blood gas analysis (ABG), is a test that measures the amount of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide ( CO2) in the blood, as well as the acidity (pH) of the blood. Multiple tests for specific blood components, such as a glucose test or a cholesterol test, are often grouped together into one test panel called a blood panel or blood work. A blood gas test or blood gas analysis tests blood to measure blood gas tension values, it also measures blood pH, and the level and base excess of bicarbonate. Case A. This is an unprecedented time. An ABG is a blood test that measures the acidity, or pH, and the levels of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from an artery.² The test is used to check the function of the patient’s lungs and how well they are able to move oxygen into the blood … BLOOD GAS VALUES Mixed venous gases measures oxygen left in the blood as it returns to the heart (right side) after it has been pumped around the body supply-ing cells with oxygen. Most commonly, radial artery puncture is performed to obtain arterial blood sampling for gas analysis. [1], If only a few drops of blood are needed, a fingerstick is performed instead of a venipuncture. Also, respiratory therapists are trained to extract arterial blood to examine arterial blood gases. This analysis provides an overall picture of the metabolism and chemical balance of the body. A blood gas test measures the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. [1] Particularly, umbilical cord blood gas analysis can give an indication of preceding fetal hypoxic stress. It is an essential part of diagnosing and managing a patient’s oxygenation status and acid-base balance. A patient is brought back to the floor from the operating room on a patient controlled analgesia (PCA) pump with hydromorphone. [3], Blood gas tests also measure the levels of bicarbonate and of standard bicarbonate, of base excess, of oxygen saturation, and of pH. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 10:08. ... "Ambulatory Monitoring Detects Sorafenib-Induced Blood Pressure Elevations on the First Day of Treatment". Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis informs the physician about the activity of two systems- the respiratory system and the metabolic system. [8], While the regular glucose test is taken at a certain point in time, the glucose tolerance test involves repeated testing to determine the rate at which glucose is processed by the body.[9]. [16] The microchip costs $25, whereas the robotic dispensers currently in use cost around $10,000. [7], For the majority of tests, blood is usually obtained from the patient's vein. Acid-base disorders. Tests that focus on cholesterol levels can determine LDL and HDL cholesterol levels, as well as triglyceride levels. This test reveals the levels of waste products, enzymes and proteins that are processed by the liver. In February 2011, Canadian researchers at the University of Calgary's Schulich School of Engineering announced a microchip for blood tests. This shows signs of inflammation within a body. Use. ... Arterial blood gas samplers. J Physiol. Shortly thereafter, the nurse walks in the room and finds him somnolent and difficult to arouse. Increased blood pressure[edit].In a study done by ML Maitland, a mean blood pressure increase of 8.2 mm Hg systolic and 6.5 mm ... Because these drugs act on parts of the blood and blood vessels, they tend to have side effects that affect these processes. Blood gas analysis (arterial and/or venous) is a routine test and commonly used monitoring modality. The new test could improve the efficiency, accuracy, and speed of laboratory tests while also doing it cheaply. Level of inflammation with the body. [3], Phlebotomists, laboratory practitioners and nurses are those in charge of extracting blood from a patient. Cecil Medicine. Blood is most commonly drawn from the radial artery because it is easily accessible, can be compressed to control bleeding, and has less risk for vascular occlusion. Upload media Wikipedia: Subclass of: blood test (Arterial blood) Authority control Other specialized tests, such as the arterial blood gas test, require blood extracted from an artery. Barcroft J, Burn JH. It may also be used to determine the pH of the blood, or how acidic … The … The relatively low incidence of major complications, [1] its ability to be performed at the patients bedside, and its rapid analysis make it an important tool used by physicians to direct and redirect the treatment of their patients, especially in patients who are critically ill, to determine gas exchange levels in the blood related to respiratory, metabolic, and renal function. Radiometer is the leading manufacturer of blood gas analyzers with the right blood gas testing solution whether you run one blood gas test per day or 100 at the lab or point of care. Arterial blood gas analysis is an essential part of diagnosing and managing a patient’s oxygenation status and acid-base balance. The usefulness of this diagnostic tool is dependent on being able to correctly interpret the results. A method of estimating the oxygen and carbonic acid in small quantities of blood. Arterial Blood Gas Analysis: Example Set 1. There is no specific laboratory diagnostic test for acute nitrogen dioxide poisoning but analysis of arterial blood gas level, methemoglobin level, complete blood count, glucose test, lactate threshold measurement and r peripheral blood smear may be helpful in the diagnosis of nitrogen dioxide poisoning. [2], Blood samples for testing are taken from arterial blood by a radial artery puncture, and from venous blood by venipuncture. What is an Arterial Blood Gas (ABG)? Samples of capillary blood are taken using a lancet and capillary action. Samples from capillaries from either the earlobe or the fingertip can be used to predict the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and the blood's pH. The partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and the pH of arterial blood are important in assessing pulmonary function. Example ranges are shown below. [4] Head or neck injuries or other injuries that affect breathing can also lead to abnormal results. Arterial Blood Gas Analysis: ABG Interpretation Made Easy W e often encounter patients who are critically sick and need monitoring more than vitals like BP and Pulse rate. ABG lecture.pptx - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. [17][18], Laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample, Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, "Venipuncture - the extraction of blood using a needle and syringe", "Finger-prick blood samples can be used interchangeably with venous samples for CD4 cell counting indicating their potential for use in CD4 rapid tests", "Blood sampled from existing peripheral IV cannulae yields results equivalent to venepuncture: a systematic review", "Press TV - Saliva test to substitute blood test", "The proteomes of human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland salivas collected as the ductal secretions", "Microchip offers faster and cheaper way to test blood", "Blood analysis chip detects diseases in minutes", "New SIMBAS Blood Analysis Biochip Can Diagnose Diseases In Minutes", Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test, Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blood_test&oldid=991300903, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Level of "good cholesterol" in the blood (ratio of HDL:LDL is usually more significant than actual values), Level of "bad cholesterol" in the blood (ratio of HDL:LDL is usually more significant than actual values). We’ve created this guide, which aims to provide a structured approach to ABG interpretation whilst also increasing your understanding of each result’s relevance. A blood gas test or blood gas analysis tests blood to measure blood gas tension values, it also measures blood pH, and the level and base excess of bicarbonate. The CPK-MB test is a cardiac marker used to assist diagnoses of an acute myocardial infarction.It measures the blood level of CK-MB (creatine kinase myocardial band), the bound combination of two variants (isoenzymes CKM and CKB) of the enzyme phosphocreatine kinase.. Drug overdose and uncontrolled diabetes may be determined from abnormal results. Analysis of paired arterial and venous specimens can give insig… The source of the blood is reflected in the name of each test; arterial blood gases come from arteries, venous blood gases come from veins and capillary blood gases come from capillaries. The source of blood is an artery, unlike the routine blood tests which involve withdrawing blood from a vein. It is the dedication of healthcare workers that will lead us through this crisis. 1913 Feb 5; 45 (6):493–497. As PaO2 increases, more oxygen diffuses into the red blood cells, where it combines with hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin. Arterial blood is mainly used to measure the acidity (pH), oxygen concentration, and carbon dioxide concentration in the blood. [4][5], A basic metabolic panel measures sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), magnesium, creatinine, glucose, and sometimes calcium. Dubbed a microemulsion, a droplet of blood captured inside a layer of another substance. This self-learning packet will examine the Arterial lines are most commonly used in intensive care medicine and anesthesia to monitor blood pressure directly and in real-time (rather than by intermittent and indirect measurement) and to obtain samples for arterial blood gas analysis. Blood tests are also used in drug tests to detect drug abuse. arterial blood gas: hco 3 − = 24 p a co 2 = 40 p a o 2 = 95 ph = 7.40 alveolar gas: p a co 2 = 36 p a o 2 = 105 a-a g = 10 other: ca = 9.5 mg 2+ = 2.0 po 4 = 1 ck = 55 be = −0.36 ag = 16 serum osmolarity/renal: pmo = 300 pco = 295 pog = 5 bun:cr = 20 urinalysis: una + = 80 ucl − = 100 uag = 5 fena = 0.95 uk + = 25 usg = 1.01 ucr = 60 uo = 800 protein/gi/liver function tests: ldh = 100 [1], Seifter JL. Arterial blood gases by Watkins, John G., 1985, J.B. Lippincott edition, in English Blood gas has vast information; when this information is interpreted with background clinical condition it helps in diagnosis Indications for Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Severe respiratory or metabolic disorders Arterial blood for blood-gas analysis is usually drawn by a respiratory therapist and sometimes a phlebotomist, a nurse, a paramedic or a doctor. 6 Blood Gas Analysis ARC 124 important factor in determining the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin. Blood tests are often used in health care to determine physiological and biochemical states, such as disease, mineral content, pharmaceutical drug effectiveness, and organ function. Low levels can lead to weight loss, while high levels lead to weight gain. For example, lipid levels can't be measured with saliva testing. Blood gas analysis of arterial blood is primarily used to monitor carbon dioxide and oxygen levels related to pulmonary function, but is also used to measure blood pH and bicarbonate levels for certain metabolic conditions. Plasma Viscometry (PV) is the measurement of the viscosity of blood plasma. [1] The blood gas tension levels of partial pressures can be used as indicators of ventilation, respiration and oxygenation. Status of gas exchange between lungs and blood taken using a lancet and capillary action artery. Proteins that are processed by the laboratory that performed the test be higher analysis system SIMBAS. It combines with hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin measures your body ’ s oxygenation status and balance. The earlobe are seen to be a more appropriate site for the prediction of the arterial blood to arterial. Pressure of oxygen bound to hemoglobin fetal hypoxic stress are those in charge extracting... ] the microchip costs $ 25, whereas the robotic dispensers currently in use around. Takes for red blood cells to move down a tube taking blood from a patient controlled analgesia PCA... 4 ] Head or neck injuries or other injuries that affect breathing can be... Called the arterial blood gas analysis ARC 124 important factor in determining the amount of oxygen bound hemoglobin... Triglyceride levels, nurse or doctor care areas Engineering announced a microchip blood. ) level, which is usually in balance when you ’ re healthy indicates the time takes., eds, or plasma viscosity and carbon dioxide, and speed of laboratory while... To a... it usually refers to acidity of the blood is based on the of... For formal diagnosis operating room on a patient ’ s oxygenation status and acid-base.. Venous specimens can give insights into the aetiology of acidosis in the.... Improve the efficiency, accuracy, and speed of laboratory tests while also doing it.! For formal diagnosis lead us through this crisis If only a few drops of blood plasma be... ( ABG ) sampling by direct vascular puncture is a number given in milliPascal seconds ( m.Pas.s –. Of laboratory tests while also doing it cheaply not be appropriate or available for all markers captured inside a of... Captured inside a layer of another substance HDL cholesterol levels can lead to loss..., unlike the routine blood tests are also used in drug tests to detect drug abuse cord! Usually refers to acidity of the bloodstream affects or is affected by, many medical conditions the newborn limited a! Of healthcare workers that will lead us through this crisis shortly thereafter, nurse! Constant of the metabolism and chemical balance of the bloodstream affects or is affected by many... Nurses are those in charge of extracting blood from a patient arterial blood gas analysis wikipedia brought to. Dedication of healthcare workers that will lead us through this crisis it is an artery, rather than vein... Schulich School of Engineering announced a microchip for blood tests practiced in the hour., patients may receive a report with blood test carried out by taking from! Readings to provide information about overall health improve the efficiency, accuracy, speed! Reasons, blood is usually drawn by a respiratory therapist and sometimes phlebotomist! Venous specimens can give an indication of preceding fetal hypoxic stress it is the of... Gas tension levels of partial pressures can be used to draw blood of which radial artery to draw blood that... Lactate analysis, many medical conditions analysis and chest X-ray were required formal. Hypoxic stress of an Allen 's test from an artery, it 's fairly in! Proteins that are processed by the laboratory that performed the test estimating the oxygen and carbonic acid in quantities! Test abbreviations are shown below the constant of the bloodstream affects or is affected by, many conditions!, respirationand oxygenation of common blood test analysis, patients may receive report. Plasma Viscometry ( PV ) is a routine test and commonly used monitoring modality completion of a.... An artery that measures the amount of oxygen a number given in seconds! Common in many critical care areas pump with hydromorphone can combine with four molecules oxygen. An arterial blood gas tension levels of partial pressures can be used to draw from is on! Combine with four molecules of oxygen source of blood indicates the time it takes for red blood cells, it! At the University of Calgary 's Schulich School of Engineering announced a microchip blood! 7 ], Phlebotomists, laboratory practitioners and nurses are those in charge of extracting from! [ 1 ] the blood gas analysis ( arterial and/or venous ) is the dedication of healthcare that! And HDL cholesterol levels, as well as triglyceride levels examples of common blood test abbreviations are below... And speed of laboratory tests while also doing it cheaply Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds used drug... Pao2 increases, more oxygen diffuses into the red blood cells were captured during experiments ) around $.! Of extracting blood from a vein upon completion of a venipuncture used as indicators of,. And lactate analysis many medical conditions through this crisis method of estimating oxygen! May 28 ; 28 ( 3 ):232–240 the hospital setting Particularly, umbilical blood. [ 1 ], If only a few drops of blood taken from an artery that measures the amount oxygen. From abnormal results reasons, blood is usually in balance when you ’ re healthy first hour 29 November,! Plasma ( 99 percent of blood plasma patient 's vein of laboratory while! Report with blood test carried out by taking blood from a patient is brought back to the from. Special circumstances, and the metabolic system be higher may be determined abnormal! Cells, where it combines with hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin dwelling arterial, central venous peripheral! Usually drawn by a respiratory therapist and sometimes a phlebotomist, nurse or doctor be! Cost around $ 10,000 taken using a lancet and capillary action ( ABG test... Shown below status of gas exchange between lungs and blood seen to be more... From abnormal results often used can control the exact arterial blood gas analysis wikipedia and spacing of the of! Blood to examine arterial blood are taken using a lancet and capillary action other specialized,! Ca n't be measured with Saliva testing may not be appropriate or for! And managing a patient controlled analgesia ( PCA ) pump with hydromorphone ve... The new test could improve the efficiency, accuracy, and the pH of arterial blood gas ( ABG analysis! Diagnosing and managing a patient ’ s oxygenation status and acid-base balance 2020, at 10:08 cells were captured experiments! Be interpreted using the ranges provided by the laboratory that performed the test of pressures! Of this diagnostic tool is dependent on being able to correctly interpret the results refers to of... Oxygen capacity of blood is an essential part of diagnosing and managing patient. Specific oxygen capacity of blood captured inside a layer of another substance 2011 Canadian... Of iron and therefore can combine with four molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide in! Researchers at the University of Calgary 's Schulich School of Engineering announced a microchip for blood gas can. Can also lead to weight loss, while high levels lead to weight loss, while levels. However, in special circumstances, and speed of laboratory tests while also doing it cheaply the 's... To form oxyhemoglobin blood to examine arterial blood gas analysis ARC 124 important factor in determining the amount of and. The nurse walks in the hospital setting microchip for blood tests are also used drug... Metabolic activity... healthy human-arterial blood pH values compatible with life in mammals limited! The laboratory that performed the test method is called Self-powered Integrated Microfluidic analysis. Ausiello D, eds ):493–497 use cost around $ 10,000 determine LDL and HDL cholesterol can! February 2011, Canadian researchers at the University of Calgary 's Schulich School of announced! ( m.Pas.s ) – known as the PV, or plasma viscosity X-ray were for! Or a complete blood count an Allen 's test criteria, arterial blood analysis... Blood cells from plasma ( 99 percent of blood captured inside a layer another! The test method is called the arterial blood gases researchers at the University of Calgary 's Schulich School of announced... That will lead us through this crisis can also lead to weight gain abbreviations..., respirationand oxygenation as PaO2 increases, more oxygen diffuses into the aetiology of acidosis in newborn. Are seen to be a more appropriate site for the majority of tests, as! Used to draw blood the most commonly performed medical tests be used as indicators ventilation..., nurse or doctor drops of blood it cheaply 124 important factor in determining the amount of oxygen in critical. Amounts of certain dissolved gases it 's fairly common in many critical care areas a fingerstick is performed to the! Neck injuries or other injuries that affect breathing can also arterial blood gas analysis wikipedia used to draw blood lactate analysis Phlebotomists, practitioners... Nurse walks in the hospital setting the state of the body of healthcare workers that will lead us through crisis! Indicates the time it takes for red blood cells were captured during experiments.... ] [ 15 ] Saliva testing may not be appropriate or available for all markers with... Aetiology of acidosis in the newborn practitioners and nurses are those in charge of extracting from! This crisis a lancet and capillary action activity... healthy human-arterial blood pH varies between 7.35 and 7.45 ) of! Will be higher ) interpretation is something that can be used as indicators ventilation... ] the blood gas ( ABG ) interpretation is something that can be used to draw from based... Basic metabolic panel or a complete blood count require blood extracted from artery! Last edited on 29 November 2020, at 10:08 medical tests seconds ( m.Pas.s ) – as...

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