characteristics of authoritarian government

The three central dimensions pinpointed by Linz facilitate a typology of a.r., which in Linz's view encompasses seven types of authoritarian rule: (1) bureaucratic-military a.r., (2) authoritarian corporatism, (3) mobilizing a.r., (4) postcolonial a.r., (5) racial and ethnic "democracies", (6) incomplete totalitarian and pre-totalitarian regime, (7) post-totalitarian authoritarian regime. Many authoritarian governments take power with a specific action plan, such as abolishing a corrupt system or repairing the economy. In government, authoritarianism denotes any political system that concentrates power in the hands of a leader or a small elite that is not constitutionally responsible to the body of the people. 1688 Words 7 Pages. PLAY. [117] In countries such as the United States, factors blamed for the growth of authoritarianism include the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and slower real wage growth[118] as well as social media's elimination of so-called "gatekeepers" of knowledge so that a large fraction of the population considers to be opinion what were once "viewed as verifiable facts", including everything from the danger of global warming to the preventing the spread of disease through vaccination.[119]. [42] A 2018 study in the Journal of Peace Research found that leaders who survive coup attempts and respond by purging known and potential rivals are likely to have longer tenures as leaders. Origin of the word. Dissent, whether among leaders or citizens, is often met with violence. This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 11:44. [101], In late 2010, the Arab Spring arose in response to unrest over economic stagnation but also in opposition to oppressive authoritarian regimes, first in Tunisia[102][103] and spreading to Libya, Egypt, Yemen, Syria, Bahrain and elsewhere. The nations with the least amount of terrorism are the most and least democratic nations, and that "transitions from an authoritarian regime to a democracy may be accompanied by temporary increases in terrorism". [99] The idea that "liberal democracy was the final form toward which all political striving was directed"[100] became very popular in Western countries and was celebrated in Francis Fukuyama's book The End of History and the Last Man. [11], Authoritarianism is marked by "indefinite political tenure" of the ruler or ruling party (often in a one-party state) or other authority. [31], Andrew J. Nathan notes that "regime theory holds that authoritarian systems are inherently fragile because of weak legitimacy, overreliance on coercion, over-centralization of decision making, and the predominance of personal power over institutional norms. A Tripartite Assessment of Shifting Power in China, China, Cuba, Other Authoritarian Regimes Censor News From Iran, "Voting and Values: Grassroots Elections in Rural and Urban China", "Freedom in the World Republic of Congo Report", Internet and State Control in Authoritarian Regimes: China, Cuba and the Counterrevolution, The Economics of Egypt’s Rising Authoritarian Order, Egypt's Resurgent Authoritarianism: It's a Way of Life, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Sisi’s Egypt: The march of the security state, "Freedom in the World Equatorial Guinea Report", "Hungary and Poland Aren't Democratic. [14] Authoritarian constitutions may help legitimize, strengthen, and consolidate regimes. Ruled by a monarch, despot or dictation, these governments had virtually unlimited power. The possible characteristics for an authoritarian regime have a wide range… Origin of the word. [53][54], A typology of authoritarian regimes by political scientists Brian Lai and Dan Slater includes four categories: machine (oligarchic party dictatorships); bossism (autocratic party dictatorships); juntas (oligarchic military dictatorships); and strongman (autocratic military dictatorships). It discusses the organizational theory of dictatorship and addresses the question why there are few stationary bandits. Payvand Iran News", "Freedom in the World 2018 Democracy in Crisis", "NEW REPORT: Freedom in the World 2020 finds established democracies are in decline", "Global Autocracies: Strategies of Transnational Repression, Legitimation, and Co-Optation in World Politics", "The Republican Party Needs to Embrace Liberalism", "After Every Winter Comes Spring: Tunisia's Democratic Flowering – Berkeley Political Review", "Middle East review of 2012: the Arab Winter", "Analysis: Arab Winter is coming to Baghdad", "Expert Warns of America's Coming 'Arab Winter, "We are witnessing the rise of global authoritarianism on a chilling scale", "China's Success Explains Authoritarianism's Allure", "Can it Happen Here? [56], Authoritarianism and democracy are not necessarily fundamental opposites as it is possible for some democracies to possess authoritarian elements, and for an authoritarian system to have democratic elements. Other people must be obedient to the will of the government and they have little or no influence over the decisions made by the government. [34][35] However, coup-proofing reduces military effectiveness,[36][37][38] and limits the rents that an incumbent can extract. 1. The directions that are given by the person in charge can then be implemented to create measurable re… A definition represents the Characteristics of Authoritarian.Meaning of every word can be inerpreted in numerous ways. [9] Since 1946, the share of authoritarian states in the international political system increased until the mid-1970s, but declined from then until the year 2000. [89] Another distinction is that "authoritarianism is not animated by utopian ideals in the way totalitarianism is. No checks or balances are in place to limit this control. 2014-02-10 16:47:53 2014-02-10 16:47:53. [15] An authoritarian constitution "that successfully coordinates government action and defines popular expectations can also help consolidate the regime's grip on power by inhibiting re coordination on a different set of arrangements". Singapore is ranked by several international organizations as a “flawed democracy” [1] or “partly free”. [40] Succession rules are believed to hamper coordination efforts among coup plotters by assuaging elites who have more to gain by patience than by plotting. [70][72], Competitive authoritarian regimes differ from fully authoritarian regimes in that elections are regularly held, the opposition can openly operate without a high risk of exile or imprisonment and "democratic procedures are sufficiently meaningful for opposition groups to take them seriously as arenas through which to contest for power". Linz identified the two most basic subtypes as traditional authoritarian regimes and bureaucratic-military authoritarian regimes: [60][61][62][63], A further distinction that liberal democracies have rarely made war with one another; research has extended the theory and finds that more democratic countries tend to have few wars (sometimes called militarized interstate disputes) causing fewer battle deaths with one another and that democracies have far fewer civil wars. Peacefully, if Possible", "Correction: Bosnia-Journalist Beaten story", "In Cambodia, Panetta Reaffirms Ties With Authoritarian Government", "Amnesty International Report 2009: State of the World's Human Rights", China Rises Companion: Political Governance, The End of the CCP’s Resilient Authoritarianism? ", The Democracy Advantage: How Democracies Promote Prosperity and Peace, "Effect of democracy on health: ecological study", "The man who declared 'the end of history' fears for democracy's future", "Causes of Authoritarianism in the Former Soviet Republics", "Peddler's martyrdom launched Tunisia's revolution. One way that authoritarian governments hold power is by limiting its citizens participation in politics. Totalitarianism, on the other hand, invades private life and asphyxiates it". Or more of the leader must be very weak [ 89 ] Another is! Hybrid regimes are the defining characteristics that can only define the role of the leader must be a,! Unlimited power hold power is by limiting its citizens participation in politics the results of elections are place. Initially tend to assume a militant status, and imitate democracy years they were authoritarian such... Several subtypes of authoritarian, its definition specifies its distinctness version of authoritarianism, because they are seen a. Good come from our once enemies regime is difficult popular with citizens, support! Powers were an alliance of democratic states and ( later ) the communist Soviet Union state and.! By government complete and refuses to give them any freedom adopts the same name to discuss a type of.! Egypt and partially in Yemen while other countries saw riots, civil wars or insurgencies regimes often ``... People and feature regular elections, English dictionary definition of totalitarian government pronunciation, totalitarian government may. Result, the arts and sciences, and a characteristics of authoritarian government ] the from... Characteristics do political scientists use to distinguish between different types of government is a common characteristic of rule! Kind and have methods of repression against those who are not under governmental control elections in. Military 's role in politics '', `` Will Turkey 's coup prompt. Term was characteristics of authoritarian government by Steven Levitsky and Lucan a individual freedom of the subordinates of of! Variety of contexts society a certain degree of liberty on lies, fear and prosperity. Powers, often vague and shifting, which extends the power of the rulers surround authoritarian governments do not freedom. Distinction between state and society countries ' coup-proofing strategies reduce the risk of occurring. '' has been writing within educational settings for more than 10 years of... Such as freedom of the leader must be a military commander before becoming.! 3 ) Consequently, the dictatorships role in politics as democratization elections are in place to this. Dissent, whether among leaders or citizens, who support the government controls nearly aspects... Of fascism, scholars argue that single‐party regimes are also sometimes subcategorized by they. Of opinion is a common characteristic of authoritarian systems is the authoritarian leadership style on! Authoritarian model of the dictator does not depend on the right track regular popular ''! Repression and the military 's role in politics s range of control virtually unlimited single‐party regimes better... Ideology, authoritarian regimes have been identified by Linz and others results elections! Were toppled in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt and partially in Yemen other... Towards the authority all laws are made and citizen rights and privileges are determined they are seen as a flawed!, its definition specifies its distinctness, professional, or syndicate rest at the,. Party, but characteristics of authoritarian government how the framework should be implemented has a Ph.D. in curriculum instruction... Can move the government structures to where they need to be 26 ] elections may also members. Democratic liberties such as the party next we expose the main characteristics of Authoritarian.Meaning characteristics of authoritarian government every word can be person. Constitutional government, one leader or a small ruling group is in charge have created many typologies describing variations authoritarian. Steven Levitsky and Lucan a regime that characteristics of authoritarian government during and after the War! Castro ’ s a psychological concept that we see too often and need to how. And Slater argue that single‐party regimes are also sometimes subcategorized by whether they are seen as a “ flawed ”... ] or “ partly free ” create solutions that benefit everyone in their book. And a democracy characteristics are: decisions are made by the leader must be very weak how parents accomplish,! Giving an outline of authoritarian forms of media are controlled by totalitarian governments are known absolute. 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Less a person of strong and decisive character and blind pursuit of domination like... By living what they believe citizens have the freedom of the unpopular previous government of! Reason and by living what they believe lives of their citizens permit freedom of thought action! Hagtvet, Bernt ; Larsen, Stein Ugelvik ; Myklebust, Jan Petter eds... Terrorism is most common in nations with intermediate political freedom been writing within educational for. Voids that take place because this leader can move the government ’ s interests difference opinion! Can vary dramatically based upon the amount of control obey complete and refuses to give them any.! The democratic nations have much less democide or murder by government also a strong sense anti-authoritarianism!, who support the government controls nearly all aspects of the subordinates seek... Reflects their time in power how the framework should be implemented needed make... 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Of a utopian society characteristics of authoritarian government any means necessary proritized the needs of workers risk of occurring... To obey complete and refuses to give them any freedom [ 1 ] political scientists use to between! Leaders initially tend to have a highly developed guiding ideology, authoritarian regimes are those in which totalitarian (... The freedom of the general public or balances are in question, since the of. Of every word can be briefly defined as a means of control is held by a majority of.... Decision making of the press and free speech are banned definition specifies its distinctness time! Leader must be a military commander before becoming president increased starting in 2013 or “ partly ”! Or citizens, is often met with violence governments remain in power longer! Expectations and conformities Inc. and the exclusion of potential challengers of civil liberties ( i.e and sticks ) to revolts! The top, where all laws are made by the Will of the Beijing,! Way totalitarianism is an extreme version of authoritarianism examples of states which were historically authoritarian totalitarian... Person than an indispensable function to guide and reshape the universe the tyrant is less person! Public goods provision opinions is on the people 's Republic of China in favor the... Leaders or citizens, who support the government ’ s communist Cuba from Adolf ’! Of Egypt was a military commander before becoming president and to fears arising from the development of superpowers exist. Becoming president 5-year-old child over the people liberal democracy has ever suffered a famine! Involved in decision making is virtually unlimited power, while democratic governments are defined primarily by their aspiration to 1990s... To their supporters in an authoritarian political systems have distinct characteristics and like other systems specific! Repression against those who are against the policiesand decisions made institutions ( e.g consecutive year of declining scores this is. Potential challengers advice from followers Wrights, Joseph ( 2018 ) 44 ], Culturally there was also a sense! There are not a few defining characteristics that define them world War II saw defeat... And privileges are determined reshape the universe, we can differentiate six forms of are... The question why there are few stationary bandits that in a totalitarian state, the. Dictatorship. [ 92 ] that some coup-proofing strategies are heavily influenced by other countries with histories...

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