For RFID far-field communication using electromagnetic radiation in the UHF band, the tag antenna can be operated in long distance that can provide the positioning and tracking for various vehicle types. The inductive reactance of square spiral structure under variable numbers of turns (. For the proposed tag antenna in UHF-RFID band radiating circular polarization, the so-called AR pattern that superimposes the normalized pattern with the AR as function of angle will be shown. We provide these hardware devices and the associated software so you can then view the status and location of mobile resources from anywhere over the internet. The inverted-Z geometry  and meandered loop  are utilized to generate CP radiation. is zero and Î² is 180Â° if is resonant. SCT has recently finalised the acquisition of the international defence business division from Savi Technology Inc of Virginia, USA. As a result, far-field tag antennas with circularly polarized (CP) radiation are more operationally desirable. Not only does CenTrak offer the most powerful and accurate mobile medical equipment tracking in hospitals, but it can also be vital to improving other aspects of a healthcare facility. These antennas suffer from the polarization loss from misalignment with reader antenna and multipath propagation environment. The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. Ideally, the proposed HF-RFID tag antenna should possess an inductive reactance of 234.73ââ¦. Recently, it has been marketed as a solution for real-time indoor positioning. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been employed in various applications, including object or person identification and tracking and toll collection . In this research, ICE is used to optimize the excitation locations. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. In principle, the intensity of total magnetic field distribution roughly decays with distance (d) to the power of three . An RFID asset tracking system uses electromagnetic fields to transmit data from an RFID tag to a reader. As a result, the square spiral structure contains nine turns (nâ=â9) and is 47âmm in outer dimension (doutâ=â47âmm), which is subsequently mounted at the center of the UHF-RFID square loop tag antenna. 134 kHz LF Livestock Tracking Ear RFID Tag. The large discrepancy could be attributed to impedance mismatch and fabrication loss. Workpiece tracking with RFID on pallet system RFID frequencies LF and HF – both RFID worlds come together. The simulated and measured maximum gains are 2.45âdBic and 1.08âdBic at 897âMHz and 884âMHz, respectively. The maximum reading range of the HF-RFID tag antenna is 4.9âcm. The robust RFID transponders enhance container system inventory tracking, operational efficiency and lifecycle management. The distance between the reader and the tag antenna is varied, and the maximum reading range is determined. SCT – an international RFID system providor – today announced that it will offer a consignment management application (CMA) to track military shipments. A shorted stub is thus introduced into the cascading square loop feeding structure for conjugate matching, as shown in Figure 8. At the center frequency of 922.5âMHz, the simulated and measured antenna gains are 2.08âdBic and 0.31âdBic. Figure 19 compares the simulated and measured antenna gains over 860âMHzâ960âMHz. The designed UHF-RFID tag antenna under test radiating left-handed CP acted as receiving antenna. Copyright © 2020 Arnon Sakonkanapong and Chuwong Phongcharoenpanich. With CenTrakâs active RFID hospital asset tracking and management system, asset tags are placed on mobile medical equipment. eModal is the technology fabric that connects Motor Carriers, Shippers and third party Logistic Service Providers with Marine Terminal Operators & Port Authorities. During the production process, RFID can be used to track parts and enable visibility into the process itself. Figure 17 compares the simulated and measured AR over the RFID frequency from 860âMHz to 960âMHz in boresight direction. CMA characterizes the modes of current on perfect electric conductor (PEC) of arbitrary conductor object to obtain characteristic modes that generate circular polarization. In [8â20], the presented circularly polarized tag antennas were operated in single band of UHF-RFID band. In theory, the inductance of the square spiral structure (Figure 1) is a function of permeability, turn width, turn spacing, and the number of turns. A comprehensive comparison of the proposed integrated HF-RFID and UHF-RFID tag antenna with some current state of the art in RFID tag antennas is tabulated in Table 3. The simple loop structure is implemented to generate CP radiation [18â20]. Given ââ¤ââ10âdB, the simulation result reveals that the UHF-RFID tag antenna is operable over 894âMHzâ947âMHz (53âMHz bandwidth). The turn width (W) and the turn spacing are identical. The CP properties of the UHF-RFID tag antenna prototype are measured in an anechoic chamber, as shown in Figure 16. CMA characterizes the modes of current on perfect electric conductor (PEC) of arbitrary conductor object to obtain characteristic modes that generate circular polarization. In Figure 7, the characteristic angle difference between modes J1 and J2 at 922.5âMHz is 92.51Â°, which is approximately quadrature phase difference for CP radiation. Locate & Track Assets On Demand with RFID Location Tracking The Future to Cost-Saving RFID Asset Tracking and Asset Location ID Integration provides expert assessment, deployment, and training for businesses working to transform their manufacturing processes, productivity, and asset tracking through RFID location tracking. From Table 3, the previously published papers of integrated dual-band HF-RFID and UHF-RFID tag antennas [4â7] were presented with linear polarization in UHF band. Most new RFID tags … 2,000 glass tags or higher volumes can be produced and delivered within ten days. Gain enterprise visibility to asset status â Not only does CenTrakâs asset management system provide precise location data, it also provides real-time updates on equipment condition. Since the impedance of the HF-RFID and UHF-RFID structures (in the absence of IC chips) are j234.73âÎ© and 14.39â+âj147.94âÎ©, it is impractical to determine the impedance using 50âÎ© network analyzer. Despite the impedance mismatch between the UHF-RFID tag antenna and 50ââ¦ network analyzer, it has no influence on the radiation characteristics of the tag antenna. In the design of the circularly polarized UHF-RFID tag antenna, a square loop radiator is introduced to surround the HF-RFID square spiral structure. Figure 5 illustrates the simulated far-field patterns of the first six modes (J1âJ6) at 922.5âMHz of the CMA-based square loop radiator. In terms of data transmission for cutting tool identification, established systems have settled on LF (Low Frequency), as this band has proven to be especially robust and reliable in metal surroundings. In the design of the UHF-RFID square loop tag antenna, characteristic mode analysis (CMA) is utilized to realize circularly polarized radiation. Industrial ID Advantages of Near vs. Far 125 – 135 KHz 13,56 MHz Region‐Dependent 840 – 960 MHz 2,45 GHz LF HF UHF Standardized Frequencies 5,8 GHz (MW) 0,1 1,0 10 100 1.000 10.000 Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, and T.-Y. In , the idea of designing the integrated near-field tag antenna with circularly polarized far-field tag antenna using Hilbert curve structure is proposed. CenTrakâs system improves asset tracking in healthcare because itâs: With CenTrak, there is only one infrastructure to install and manage; itâs the most practical asset visibility solution on the market today. The simulated and measured impedance: (a) HF-RFID structure and (b) UHF-RFID structure. CenTrak is currently deployed at world-class healthcare facilities in the US, Asia, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and the Middle East. Walter Reed Army Medical Center is planning to use a real-time location system that employs active RFID tags to track some 4,000 pieces of equipment in the hospital. Unlike other solutions on the market that estimate distance, CenTrak provides the precise location with 100 percent accuracy for certainty-based location data. Kuo, âCircularly polarized loop tag antenna for long reading range RFID applications,â, C.-H. Tsai, H.-D. Chen, and C.-Y.-D. Sim, âHigh-gain circularly-polarized loop tag antenna for long reading distance RFID application,â, J.-H. Lu and B.-S. Chang, âPlanar compact square-ring tag antenna with circular polarization for UHF RFID applications,â, R. Garbacz and R. Turpin, âA generalized expansion for radiated and scattered fields,â, R. Harrington and J. Mautz, âTheory of characteristic modes for conducting bodies,â, R. Harrington and J. Mautz, âComputation of characteristic modes for conducting bodies,â, M. Khan and D. Chatterjee, âCharacteristic mode analysis of a class of empirical design techniques for probe-fed, U-slot microstrip patch antennas,â, E. Antonino-Daviu, M. Cabedo-Fabres, M. Sonkki, N. Mohamed Mohamed-Hicho, and M. Ferrando-Bataller, âDesign guidelines for the excitation of characteristic modes in slotted planar structures,â, Z. Liang, J. Ouyang, F. Yang, and L. Zhou, âDesign of license plate RFID tag antenna using characteristic mode pattern synthesis,â, F. H. Lin and Z. N. Chen, âLow-profile wideband metasurface antennas using characteristic mode analysis,â, Y. Luo, Z. N. Chen, and K. Ma, âEnhanced bandwidth and directivity of a dual-mode compressed high-order mode stub-loaded dipole using characteristic mode analysis,â, H. A. Wheeler, âSimple inductance formulas for radio coils,â, S. S. Mohan, M. del Mar Hershenson, S. P. Boyd, and T. H. Lee, âSimple accurate expressions for planar spiral inductances,â. Purchase Balluff products online at http://cmafh.com. How to Use RFID Technology to Track Your Attendees’ Engagement. With CenTrakâs hospital asset tracking and management system, staff know the exact location and condition of critical resources they need. Increase staff satisfaction â When clinicians can perform their jobs without being interrupted by misplaced equipment challenges, they experience a more streamlined workflow. Within seconds, the platform provides insightful contact tracing data into asset interactions between other equipment, staff and patients. Figure 15 compares the simulated and measured of the UHF-RFID structure. When staff members are under pressure, they donât have time to spare searching for medical equipment such as IV pumps and patient monitoring devices. The realized gain is the significant property of the antenna. The calculation of the reading range can be determined from .where . The far-field tag antennas of linearly polarized radiation are prone to polarization mismatch with reader antenna. The current on conductor surface (J) is the summation of mode currents and can be expressed aswhere is the modal weighting coefficient and is the eigencurrent. The received power was measured from each case of transmitting antenna. The larger memory in HF-RFID tag is capable of storing the important information such as car owner name, registration information, and others. The crucial challenge of this research is to design the integrated dual-band passive HF-RFID and UHF-RFID tag antenna for near-field and far-field communication with great performance, compact structure, and cost effectiveness. Thatâs where CenTrakâs active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology comes in. Using Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) for attendance tracking offers a few advantages: Speed: To record attendance, all you need is to bring the RFID tag within a proximity of about an inch from the reader. The RFID near-field communication in HF band has the benefit that the prominent magnetic field can penetrate the lossy materials and other dielectric media such as glass or other components of vehicles. The measured reading range associated with this simulated magnetic field distribution will be mentioned in Section 3. For specified angle, the ratio of the outer and inner envelopes represents the AR. The modal weighting coefficient can be expressed aswhere is the eigenvalue and is the modal excitation coefficient which is defined bywhere is incident electric field and is the surface of a conductor. CMA … As their name implies, active tags are internally powered so they can broadcast a low level radio “beacon” carrying the asset description. For the circularly polarized antenna, the antenna gain is considered from the co-polarized radiation, where the unit of its gain is dBic. The network analyzer is calibrated in full two-port network mode. In the near-field communication of HF-RFID system, the magnetic field coupling plays a vital role in the connection between the reader and tag. The HF-RFID tag antenna of square spiral structure with measured impedance of 5.81â+âj236.31ââ¦ is conjugate-matched with NT3H2111 chip at 13.56âMHz, resulting in the maximum reading range of 4.9âcm. Due to fabrication constraints, the turn width (W) and turn spacing remain constant at 1âmm. The simulated characteristic currents: (a) mode. Essentially, the proposed integrated dual-band HF-RFID and UHF-RFID passive tag antenna is suitable for near-field and far-field communication such as in highway tracking and toll collection applications. The configuration of square spiral HF-RFID tag antenna. Park, âA compact circularly polarized crossed-dipole antenna for an RFID tag,â, X. Gao and Z. Shen, âUHF/UWB tag antenna of circular polarization,â, D. Inserra and G. Wen, âCompact crossed dipole antenna with meandered series power divider for UHF RFID tag and handheld reader devices,â, H.-D. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-Y.-D. Sim, and C.-Y. The RFID near-field and far-field antennas operating in dual HF band and UHF band have been presented in [3â7]. Theoretically, CP radiation is induced when the phase difference between two orthogonal electric fields is 90Â°. The configuration of UHF-RFID tag antenna. When the distance is 5âcm, the intensity of magnetic field is relatively weak as illustrated in Figure 3(e). Figure 2 illustrates the inductive reactance of the square spiral structure under variable numbers of turns (n) and dout, i.e., (4, 80), (5, 64), (6, 55), (7, 50), (8, 48), (9, 47), (10, 46), and (11, 46), with the resulting inductive reactance of 228.96ââ¦ â238.17ââ¦. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The antenna gain is closed to that of the dipole antenna with equivalent electrical length (1-2âdBic). The maximum reading range (Rmax) can be estimated from the effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) of the UHF-RFID reader and the characteristics of the tag antenna. The measured result shows the operating frequency of 903âMHzâ944âMHz (41âMHz bandwidth). The characteristics of the tag antenna are the gain of tag antenna (Gtag), reflection coefficient (Î), polarization loss factor (PLF), and minimum required power for the tag (Ptag). CenTrak, the most accurate real-time locating system (RTLS), delivers rapid location and condition updates capable of capturing interactions between equipment, patients and staff within seconds. The only one of its kind, CenTrakâs asset tracking system combines the worldâs most accurate RTLS with a robust security platform. The simulated and measured results of normalized AR pattern of UHF-RFID tag antenna: (a, b) simulated. In Figures 5(a) and 5(b), the far-field patterns of modes J1 and J2 are of near-omnidirectional radiation and orthogonal to each other, rendering them ideal for excitation of CP radiation. However, with expert help, RFID can provide a reliable way of identifying a wide range of vehicles, locating them to … RFID technology can help planners capture the highs and lows of attendee engagement. To characterize the AR of the UHF-RFID tag antenna, the standard conical log spiral antennas (ETS-Lindgren) models 3102 (right-hand wound) and 3102L (left-hand wound) are used as the transmitting antennas with left-handed and right-handed CP radiation. Reports show asset movement as well as a history of alarms to give staff greater insight into how assets are being utilized. Arnon Sakonkanapong, Chuwong Phongcharoenpanich, "Near-Field HF-RFID and CMA-Based Circularly Polarized Far-Field UHF-RFID Integrated Tag Antenna", International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. Just one infrastructure to install and manage â making it the worldâs most practical asset visibility platform available today. The ideal CP is corresponding to zero dB difference of outer and inner envelopes. 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